Potatoes production guidelines
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- 15 November 2016
Potato varieties have long growing time, thus when being taken out of cold storage, the roots are short and few so they should be stored in house from 7-10 days (attention: should be stored in cool and dark place, avoid windy place causing dry for roots leading difficulty in growing) to be longer and increase the number of roots/ tuber. This makes potatoes grow quickly after planting and increase the stem/clump (about 3-4 stems/clump), which is one of the factors increasing potatoes productivity.
Potatoes production techniques:
- Slash rows on beds, spread rotten cattle manure and phosphate into channel and nitrogen and potassium have to be fertilized between two tubers and distanced 15cm
- Put seedling or piece into the beds, attention: do not let seedling touch fertilizer, distance among seedlings 30 x 40 cm (4 clumps/m2 equivalent to 1400 – 1450 clumps/360m2)
- Soil covering techniques: Soil has to cover the whole tubers, fertilizer; using small soil and 5-cm thick covered, not exposed root (if exposed, root will not grow), if soil is moisture enough, potato stem will grow above ground after only 7- 10 days
Fertilizer: To 1 are (360m2).
- Manure 400-600 kg (Should composting manure with lime and Phosphorus 2-3-month before planting before planting in order to eliminate the disease in cattle manure and provide digestible phosphorus for potatoes)
- Urea fertilizer 9 kg
- Superphosphate 20 kg
- Potassium 8 kg.
Fertilizer application method:
- Basal application: For seedling: apply entire cattle manure and phosphate and 1/2 nitrogen and potassium. For cut seedling: basally apply entire cattle manure and phosphate (should not apply nitrogen and potassium)
- Top-dressing phase 1: 15 – 20 cm height stem, top-dressing 1⁄2 weight of Nitrogen and 1⁄2 together with mild cultivation.
- Top-dressing phase 2: (for cut seedling): After 10 – 15 days from phase 1 with 1⁄2 weight of Nitrogen and 1⁄2 weight of remained potassium together with high cultivation
- Attention: Cultivation should be completed within 40 days since the first day of planting.
- Aphids (Pseudocomlus citiis R.): Regularly check and observe aphids on germ and root. Use Supracide 40EC (15-20 ml/10 liters of water), Confidor 100SL (15-20 ml/10 liters of water), Vidithoate 40EC (30-40 ml/10 liters of water).
- Pseudomonas solanacearum: Caused by Pseudomonas solanasearum.
- Symptom: After 30 days of growing, in the afternoon the stems are wilted from the tops down, in the early morning they are fresh again and after a few days, the stems die.
- Control: Use disease-free tuber, rotate non-solanaceous crops, best with rice to reduce diseases in soil. Regularly visit field to find diseased crops. Uproot, destroy and sprinkle lime on diseased tree to prevent the spread of disease.
- Late blight: caused by fungal pathogen Phytophthora infestans. The fungus spreads rapidly under favourable weather conditions: rainy, humid and warm weather. Fog is also good condition for disease to develop into an epidemic disease.
- Control: Apply Balance NPK, should not appy nitrogen late.
- Spray Mancozeb 80WP (20g / 10 liters of water), Ridomil MZ72 (20g / 10 liters of water), M-45 Dithan 80WP (20-30g / 10 liters of water) … Spray to prevent when the weather is humid and foggy.
- Collar rot: caused by fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Potato stem mostly contract the disease on the root. Diseased potatoes stop growing and die.
- Control: Do not use rice straw from sheath blight contaminated fields to cover potatoes, when incipient disease appears, spray Valydacin (20-30g / 10 liters of water), Anvil 5SC (10-20ml / 10 liters of water) …
If 2/3 the total crops on field turns from green into yellow then harvest. 5-7 days before harvesting, cut the leaves and leave only 10-15cm trunk sections. Choose sunny days to harvest, dig and spread over the beds, and classify fresh and standard potatoes, prevent scratches on tubers during harvesting and transporting.